This is accomplished by using combinations of the most sophisticated Echometer hardware and computer software which are specifically designed to perform particular measurements that may be grouped in the following main categories such as:
- Acoustic Measurements
- Single Fluid Level
- Liquid Level Tracking Survey (Multiple Fluid Level Shots)
- Transient Pressure Surveys (Multiple Fluid Level Shots)
- Plunger Lift Surveys
- Dynamometer Measurements.
- Motor Power/Current Measurements.
The following are partial lists of typical questions that can be answered by proper use and interpretation of Echometer measurements:
From Acoustic Measurements
- Is there liquid above the pump? At what depth is the top of the liquid column?
- Is gas flowing up the annulus? If yes, at what rate?
- What is the casing-head pressure? Is it changing with time?
- What is the percent liquid in the annular fluid column?
- What is the pressure at the perforations?
- What is the percent of the maximum oil rate that is currently being produced?
- What is the maximum rate that could be produced from the well?
- What is the sound speed in the annular gas?
- What is the average gravity of the gas in the annulus?
- Are there any restrictions or anomalies in the annulus above the liquid level?
From Dynamometer Measurements
- Is the well pumped off?
- What is the percent pump fillage?
- Are the traveling and/or standing valves leaking?
- What is the pump displacement in barrels per day?
- What is the effective pump plunger travel?
- What is the current pumping speed?
- What is the fluid load on the pump?
- Are the maximum and minimum polished rod loads within the capacity of the pumping unit and the rods?
- What is the polished rod horsepower?
- Is the maximum torque less than the gearbox specification?
- Is the unit properly balanced?
- What movement of the counterweights is required in order to balance the unit?
- What is the weight of the rods in the fluid?
- Does the pumping system require a detailed analysis and/or redesign?
From Liquid Level Tracking Survey
- What is the depth to the liquid level?
- Is the liquid level rising or falling?
- Is the liquid level within a pre-set depth interval?
From Pressure Transient Survey
- What is a good estimate of reservoir pressure?
- What is the flowing bottom-hole pressure?
- What is the pressure buildup rate?
- Is there annular afterflow of liquid/gas when the well is shut in?
- Is there any wellbore damage?
- Is the well fractured?
- Does the well require a detailed pressure transient analysis?
From Plunger Lift Surveys
- Where is the plunger? Above the liquid?
- What are the velocities of the plunger?
- What is the depth to the top of the liquid?
- What is the producing BHP?
- Is liquid in the casing annulus above the tubing intake?
- What is the gas gravity?
- Are there any restrictions to plunger fall in the tubing?
From Custom Survey
- In gas lift wells, where is the fluid level in the annulus?
- How many gas lift valves are uncovered?
- In a shut-in gas well, where is the fluid level inside the tubing?
- In a shut-in well, what is the bottom-hole (reservoir) pressure?
- Status of a Subsurface Safety valve (open/closed)?
- In Plunger lift wells, what is the plunger fall speed and time to bottom?
- Position of liquid slugs in batch treatments?
- Pressure buildup in flowing wells?
- Calibration of downhole ESP pressure transducer.
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